THE TWO REPUBLICS OF NEGROS - WATAWAT - FLAGS AND SEALS OF THE PEARL OF THE ORIENT SEAS

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THE TWO REPUBLICS OF NEGROS


THE REPUBLIC OF NEGROS OR GOBIERNO REPUBLICANO FEDERAL DE CANTON DE YSLA DE NEGROS


The Republic of Negros ( República de Negros) was a short-lived revolutionary republic, and later, administrative division.
From November 3 to November 6, 1898, the Negrenses rose in revolt against the Spanish authorities headed by politico-military governor Colonel Isidro de Castro. The Spaniards decided to surrender upon seeing armed troops marching in a pincer movement towards Bacolod. The revolutionaries, led by General Juan Anacleto Araneta from Bago and General Aniceto Lacson from Talisay, were actually carrying fake arms consisting of rifles carved out of palm fronds and cannons of rolled bamboo mats painted black. By the afternoon of November 6, Colonel de Castro signed the Act of Capitulation, thus ending Spanish rule in Negros Occidental.
On November 27, 1898, viewing Negros as part of a Grand Republica Filipina, the planters- revolutionaries declared a "federal cantonal " government with the unwieldy name of : "Gobierno Republicano Federal de Canton de Ysla de Negros ", composed of the island's two provinces. On that day the Filipino flag fluttered for the first time over all the independent island of Negros.
During the same day , Negros elected its first government officials, they were : Anecito Lacson, Iloilo- born General - President; General Juan A. Araneta - Sectretary of War ; Don Eusebio Luzurriaga- Tresaurer; Simeon Lizares - Secretary of Interior : Nicolas Golez - Secretary of Fomento; Antonio Jayme Ledesma - Justice ; Agustin Amenabler - Agriculture and Commerce; and Melecio Severino - Executive Secretary.
The Republic came under U.S. protection on 1899 changing its name On: "Republic of Negros " but on April 1901, this was dissolved by the United States.



The hacienda house of José Ruiz de Luzuriaga in Valencia is the site of the signing of the Act of Capitulation on November 6, 1898, marking the end of Spanish rule on Negros. The house later became the seat of the Negros Republic, the provincial capitol, and finally Bacolod City Hall.
In 1920, Valencia, Negros Oriental was renamed "Luzuriaga" in honor of Don Carlos Ruiz de Luzuriaga, a delegate from Negros to the Philippine Legislature (it was later renamed back to Valencia after the Second World War)


JOSE' RUIZ DE LUZURIAGA PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLICA DE NEGROS

ONE OF THE FLAGS OF THE REPUBLIC OF NEGROS *

JUAN ANACLETO ARANETA (1852 - 1924 ) WAS A PIONEER SUGAR FARMER AND REVOLUTIONARY LEADER DURING THE NEGROS REVOLUTION


THE WHITE FLAG OF DON JUAN ANACLETO ARANETA


DON JUAN A. ARANETA, HIS MAGICAL POWERS AND HIS FLAG.
Juan Anacleto Araneta in 1891 went to Europe with his friend, Don Claudio Reina after his wife died; when he came back home he brought many gadgets to his hacienda in Dinapalan. One popular tale was his use of a telescope to supervise his laborers in the vast hacienda from afar. It became a legend among the common people that he had magical powers, but in reality, he was only able to see their actions by using the telescope.
However, apart from the telescope to Don Juan were attribuited a number of magical powers; the following written account (from the book :
" Clash of spirits: the history of power and sugar planter hegemony on a visayan island .by Filomeno V. Aguilar . Pag 174 ) tells us more on the figure of Don Juan Araneta:

" ...the precolonial female divinity Laon, who once had dominion over the magical mountain of Kanlaon. As araneta's spirit-guide, the Sota was a composite power source, reputedly spanish-looking but with a body that was halfblack and half white, a feature described in Ilonggo as "kambang".Some informants suggested that Sota was Araneta's spouse, or that Araneta himself was a type of Sota.
Others claimed that Sota was a spiritual being of small stature who regularly visited Araneta at his residence in Bago. Most certainly linked to Araneta's mystique was a "white monkey " he claimed to have captured, such creature being, in the opinion of an american writer, "the only one founded in the islands" (Steward 1908, 198 ).
The uncertainly gendered of Sota stood for the combined forces of hispanic and native wellsprings of otherworldly power the mestizo araneta was enabled to tap into in order to perform an unprecedented role in the island's history. To reciprocate Sota's friendship and assistance - indicative of the elite's anti-Catholic aura - Araneta supposedly would scale the slopes of Kanlaon during the annual Holy Week in order to, like the babaylan, augment his powers and presumably commune with Sota.
He was said to have collected medicinals herbs, roots, barks, and other objects that were later mixed with oil made from a peculiar coconut (bugtong ngalubi ). Consistent with the present-day practice of shamans in Panay and negros Islands, Araneta allegedly gathered Kanlaon's magical objects during Good Friday, when Christ was believed dead and thusunable to exact divine restibution. At Kanlao's summit, Araneta was said to have planted a white flag to announce his presence on fabled mountain.... . "

"... Claudio Bakus, (also called Claudio Bukidnon) the "fierce and brave" fighter who operated in the Toledo-Balamban area in the anti-spanish uprising. St the head of "hundreds of rebels", he and his men occupied the outbuildings and warehouses of the Canlumampao Sugar Estate near Toledo on 19 april 1898. The rebels did not harm the american estate owners, Alfred E. Williams and his mother. Claudio was believed to be invulnerable and his powers were attribuited to a red flag he carried. ..... "

From the book :The war against the Americans: resistance and collaboration in Cebu, 1899-1906
by Resil B. Mojares

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