FLAGS AND SYMBOLS FROM 1800 TO 1900 CENTURY > FROM THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION UNTIL PRESENT DAYS
THE COLORUM MOVMENTS
The term “colorum” is taken from the Christian prayers ending “in omnia et saecula saeculorum” which means “forever and ever.” Colorum was first given to the cofradia in Southern Tagalog who broke away with Spanish authorities in 1831. In Surigao the Colorum was organized by Geraldo “Andoy” Lasala it was a secret society.
The Colorum fought the longest starting from 1848 up to 1899, then joined the War of Independence, and resumed the struggle after Aguinaldo. They supplied manpower and substantial financing to Gen. Malvar, and continued on their struggle from 1903 to 1913. In Surigao the Colorum extended the fight against the Americans or also known as the Colorum Uprising of 1924.
COLORUM BLACK FLAG
America is in the heart: a personal history
Carlos Bulosan - 1946 - 326 pagine -
They were members of the Colorum Party, a fanatical organization of dispossessed peasants that terrorized Luzon. ... The attacking band of the Colorum increased; they appeared from everywhere with their black flag and fired upon the men ...
Crisis in the Philippines: the making of a revolution
Epifanio San Juan - 1986 - 264 pagine -
" The attacking band of the Colorum increased; they appeared from everywhere with their black flag and fired upon the men in the presidencia. "
In bitter tempest: the biography of Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher
Stephen D. Regan - 1994 - 288 pagine -
By the end of the day, the remaining Colorum came into the encampment in little bands, each carrying white flags and keeping their hands raised. Fletcher returned to the Sacramento. Of the 326 who surrendered that day, all but the 45 who ...