MANILA-COAT-OF-ARMS ( Biblioteca Nacional Madrid ).
THE Coat- of- Arms of Manila was granted by a decree issued on 20 March 1596 by King Philip II of Spain. The grant was as follows:
Don Philipe, by the grace of God, etc.
Inasmuch as you, Captain Agustin de Arce, in the capacity of procurador-general of the Filipinas Islands, have informed me that the inhabitants of the city of Manila did render me service in its discovery, and remain there continuing this work; and inasmuch as you have entreated me–in consideration of the said facts, and because the said city of Manila is the capital and principal city of the said islands, and it was therefore commanded that an audiencia be again established there, and its cathedral church elevated into a metropolitan church, by which the city will be ennobled–that I should order a coat-of-arms to be bestowed upon the city, such as is possessed by other cities of the Indias; and considering that my council on the affairs of the Indias, after consultation with me, has favored the above request; it has seemed to me fitting to grant it. By these presents I assign, as the special coat-of-arms of the said city of Manila in the Filipinas Islands, a shield which shall have in the center of its upper part a golden castle on a red field, closed by a blue door and windows, and which shall be surmounted by a crown; and in the lower half on a blue field a half lion and half dolphin of silver, armed and langued gules–that is to say, with red nails and tongue. The said lion shall hold in his paw a sword with guard and hilt. This coat-of-arms shall be made similar to the accompanying shield, painted as is indicated above.
I bestow these arms upon the said city of Manila, as its own, and as its appointed and recognized device, so that it may and shall bear and place them upon its banners, shields, seals, flags, and standards, and in all other parts and places desired and considered fitting, according to, and following the same form and manner as the other cities of my kingdoms to which I have given arms and device place and possess them. And by this my decree, I charge the most serene prince, Don Philipo, my very dear and well beloved son, and the kings succeeding to me, and I order the infants, prelates, dukes, marqueses, counts, and grandees; the masters, priors, commanders and sub-commanders of the orders; the governors of castles, forts, and open districts; the members of my council, and the president and auditors of the same royal audiencias; the alcaldes, constables of my house, court, and chanceries; all the councils, corregidors, asistentes, governors, veinte e cuatros, regidors, and jurors; and the knights, squires, officials, and freemen of all the cities, towns, and villages of these my kingdoms and seigniories, and of my said Indias, islands, and Tierra Firme of the Ocean Sea–both in the present and future, and each and every one of them in his jurisdiction, who shall be notified of this–that they observe and regard, and cause to be observed and regarded the said grant of the said arms which I thus bestow upon the said city of Manila in the Filipinas Islands, so that they be allowed to place and possess them in the said city. And I order that no obstruction or impediment be offered to this concession or to any part of it, and that no one shall consent to place any obstruction whatever thereto, under penalty of my displeasure, and of a fine of ten thousand maravedis, to be paid to my exchequer, laid upon any person who shall act contrary to this order. Given in Aranxuez, on the twentieth day of March, one thousand five hundred and ninety-six.
In 1886, the Philippine Islands were divided into two provinces, Manila and Ilo-Ilo.
After the proclamation of the two provinces Manila adopted the ensign of 1845 and Ilo-Ilo the new white and blue ensign.
PAINTING OF FRANCISCO DE GOYA Y LUCIENTES
" JUNTA DE FILIPINAS" 1815
327 x 415 cm.
Museum:Museo Goya (Castres)
The larger canvas that Goya painted is dedicated to collect a session of the Board of the Royal Company of the Philippines headed by Ferdinand VII, the central figure of the composition at the confluence of all eyes. Beside him are Miguel de Lardizabal-minister of the Indies, and Jose Luis Munarriz, president of the Company. On both sides of the canvas chairs are occupied by various members of the institution while the fund is the desk chair with the "Wanted" as the most distinguished member. The light shines through the large window on the right, flooding much of the room to create an attractive game and atmospheric lighting reminiscent of the works of Velázquez. All the characters are individualized, expressive, creating a spectacular catalog of Spanish nobility and aristocracy.The Royal Philippine Company was incorporated in 1733 with the aim of establishing a line navigation of Cadiz to Manila. Due to low activity in 1785 increased the capital Cabarrus, involving the Charles III. Obtained the privilege of trading with Africa, India and the Philippines for 20 years, sending domestic and foreign products and importing many articles not only to Spain but to Europe and America. Mismanagement in the reign of Fernando VII caused the crisis, dissolved in 1834.
FLAG OF THE ROYAL PHILIPPINES COMPANY 1733 -1834 circa
REAL COMPANIA DE FILIPINAS
The Company was projected in the light of the excellent results obtained by the Caracas company, and should have been formed in 1733 ; however, its considerable privileges provoked opposition, and formation never took place. However, in the early 1780s the idea was resurrected ; the object of the new company was to carry all types of Spanish goods to the American colonies, sell them for silver to buy oriental goods for sale in Spain. The company was duly formed in 1785, the Caracas and Barcelona companies being dissolved and incorporated into it. It was given the necessary rights of trade with the Philippines for 20 years, and the monopoly of sale in Spain of oriental goods ; the people of the Philippines were allowed to trade freely with India and China, to enable a wide range of goods to be available for the company's ships to buy. There was much opposition, notably from Holland, on the grounds of alleged violation of treaties, and by domestic interests who did not fancy oriental competition, particularly the cotton textile trade of Catalonia and the silk trade of Valencia.
The capital of the new company was 160 million reales, of which 60 million was subscribed by the King, and the Banco de San Carlos and the Cinco Gremios de Madrid were major shareholders.
The first expeditions made excellent profits and encouraged the company to expand, opening depots in all major Spanish ports in addition to the initial facilities in Madrid and Cadiz. However, in 1789, a decree was passed, allowing the general import into Spain of certain textiles covered by the company's monopoly. This hurt the company badly, since its warehouses were full of such goods it could not easily sell. Its need for liquid resources led to an issue of bonds, and the position was thereby much strengthened. With the reinforcement of its monopoly in 1793 the company flourished in the mid-1790s, when it was operating no fewer than 16 ships.
In 1796 began the process that was to lead to the downfall of the company. War broke out between Spain and England, and the following year the English captured one of its ships, laden with cargo. The company struggled on, with its fortunes fluctuating with war and peace, but by the end of the Peninsular War in 1815, it was in a sorry state. It managed to survive until 1834, when it was finally dissolved.
Spanish guidon of the First company of Cavalry - Provincial Regiment of the Philippines (1769 ).