SRIVIJAYA EMPIRE - WATAWAT - FLAGS AND SEALS OF THE PEARL OF THE ORIENT SEAS

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SRIVIJAYA EMPIRE

Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Thai: ศรีวิชัย RTGS: Siwichai, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i) was a dominant thalassocratic city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century. In Sanskrit, śrī means "fortunate", "prosperous", or "happy" and vijaya means "victorious" or "excellence".
The influence of the empire reached Manila by the 10th century. A kingdom under its sphere of influence had already been established there.[42][43]
By the 12th century, the kingdom included parts of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Western Java, Borneo and the Philippines, most notably the Sulu Archipelago and the Visayas islands (it is believed by some historians that the name 'Visayas' is derived from the empire).[44]
Srivijaya remained a formidable sea power until the 13th century.[2] According to George Coedes, at the end of the 13th century the empire "...had ceased to exist...caused by the simultaneous pressure on its two flanks of Siam and Java.
FROM THE BOOK :Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500 By Lynda Shaffer

SRIVIJAYAN COIN WITH NAGA SYMBOL

“One of the earliest examples of the naga's enhancement of royal power can be seen in the Telagu Batu inscription near Palembang, the probable site for the capital of the powerful maritime kingdom of Srivijaya, which dominated trade in the Melaka straits area from the seventh tot the eleventh century. This huge stone (now in the Museum Nasional in Jakarta), undated but from corroborating evidence thought to have been inscribed around the year 686, is addressed to all  the king's subjects. The stone is in the form of a shield carved along the top curve with seven naga heads.  In an inscription of 775 dedicating a Buddhist monastery  at Ligor in the north of the Malay Peninsula,  the Srivijayan monarch is described as “patron of the nagas, their heads halved by the streaks of the luster of gems.” (1)

(1)  Hall, Kenneth R.: Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southeast Asia. Honolulu, 1985 page  83.


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