The Ganap Party was a Filipino political party that grew from the Sakdalista movement. Benigno Ramos, was its leader and was also the founder of the Sakdalista movement. The party took its name from the Tagalog word ganap, which means "complete".
Sakdal party leader Benigno Ramos returned to the Philippines in 1938, after three years in self-imposed Japanese exile. Anxious to regroup after the failed May uprising, he formed Ganap. It was therefore not surprising that the party was pro-Japan in outlook and saw an alliance with them as the road to independence. Ramos named the party Ganap because he was anxious to kickstart their election campaign. Indeed, their propaganda was so rabidly pro-Japanese and anti-American that Ramos was imprisoned on charges of swindling. Ganap drew its support base from the old Sakdal members, the disgruntled peasant class. The party was not without internal dissent, though, as opponents of Benigno Ramos remained in the old Sakdal Party, claiming that Ramos had become a Nacionalista turncoat and a Quezon puppet.
Ganap was able to organise and they were one of only three parties allowed to stand in the 1941 election when Manuel L. Quezon sought re-election. The party's main area of support was the Bulacan-Southern Luzon area, where the major land estates were located. As the party gained strength, membership spread to other provinces, such as La Union and Pangasinan.
The Pacific theater of the World War II was opened on December 8, 1941 (Philippine time), with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. After that mission, Japanese planes proceeded to bomb targets in Davao. By Christmas, the Japanese forces had landed on Philippine soil. Among the invaders was the pro-Japanese Katipunan general Artemio Ricarte. In early April 1942, the Japanese liberated Ramos from his imprisonment, without forgetting to mobilize Ganap support for the Japanese.
Ganap saw the Japanese as saviors of the Philippines, and its members readily collaborated with them during the occupation of the islands. Many Ganap members were recruited into the Yoin, or United Nippon, an organisation dedicated to performing auxiliary and menial duties for the Japanese expeditionary force. Other Ganap members were absorbed by the Japanese Army, and were issued weapons. Widespread abuse of these duties and powers was reported, and guerrilla outfits retaliated by harassing Ganap members and their families. The Nacionalista Party clique, led by then-President Jose P. Laurel and former Philippine Executive Commission Chairman Jorge B. Vargas, became worried over the growing power of the Ganap Party. Ganap was therefore sidelined when the occupiers decreed the creation of KALIBAPI into which they were merged. Although the party was a constituent of KALIBAPI, Ganap never exercised real influence within the new grouping, partly at the suggestion of Laurel and Vargas. Many of the original party followers would go on to form the basis of the militia group Makapili, which the Japanese founded in November 1944.
Notes on the Ganap Party flags :
(from The Philippines Free Press October 28, 1939
"Stepping out of the neat little pagoda, the High Commissioner had his first real glimpse of the Filipino people. About half of the crowd belonged to Benigno Ramos’ Ganap party and they quickly stole the show. Defying police orders, they waved little blue flags demanding independence, displayed trenchant placards reading:
“The Filipino people demand true independence right away!”
Cheers for Ramos
"When Ramos walked along Katigbak drive to the landing early that morning, the Ganap ranks gave him cheer after lusty cheer. But when President Quezon drove by in his limousine, preceded by three motorcycle policemen and three Philippine army artillery units, the Ganap men fell into a sullen silence. It was an amazing, and significant, contrast.
After the High Commissioner’s speech, an old man carrying a Ganap flag asked a Manila Daily Bulletin reporter: “Are we free now?”
There is also a video reporting this rally available on Gettyimages.it
Makapili, (Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino) "Filipino for Alliance of Philippine Patriots" was a militant group formed in the Philippines in 1944 during World War II to give military aid to the Imperial Japanese Army.Makapili was Organised by Benigno Ramos the group was born out of José P. Laurel's refusal to conscript Filipinos for Japan. The Japanese decreed that the group should be founded in November 1944 when they brought together many of the supporters of the defunct Ganap Party. Like Ganap its main area of support was Metro Manila, although Makapili established chapters across the islands, attracting some support.
t the end of the war , in 1945 the group was disbanded and vilified for its involvement in some Japanese atrocities in the islands and individual members faced trials for treason as a result.
SOME NOTES WITH DESCRIPTION OF THE MAKAPILI FLAG
The Philippines Under Japan: Occupation Policy and Reaction
bu Setsuho Ikehata, Ricardo Trota Jose - 1999 -
He criticized those who did not actively support the Makapili, saying "A person who takes advantage of the relatively ample protection given him by the ... The Makapili flag, which was similar to that of the Katipunan, was unfurled by Ricarte.
The Blue-Eyed Enemy: The Blue-Eyed Enemy: Japan Against the West in Java and Luzon, 1942-1945
By Theodore Friend - 2014 - page 174
Ricarte unfurled its flag: the sun with eight rays, symbolizing the eight provinces that first took arms against Spain, and the spirit of Hakko' ichiu . ...
Solidarity - Issues 137-140 - Page 83
Murata claims that there were 300-400, with many women and children there.26 The Makapili flag was similar to that of the Katipunan, with a Malayan "k." The sun's eight rays as used in the Philippine national flag signified the first eight provinces that first took arms against Spain.
Asian and Pacific Migration Journal: APMJ. - Volume 8 - Page 152
The inauguration of the Makapili saw many symbols from the Katipunan - a flag based on the Katipunan flag, the Makapili anthem and others. This organization would go down in Philippine history as one of the most feared arid treasonous ...
The Saga of Jose P. Laurel: (his Brother's Keeper) - Page 338
Teofilo del Castillo, José del Castillo - 1949 -
Makapili chieftains worked so hard at their evil designs that they always showed out the lurid slip of their goddess. ... their organization after the grand old Philippine revolutionary society, the Katipunan, and designed a flag with a large "K" ...