THE WHA-CHI AND OTHER GUERRILLA GROUPS AND UNITS - WATAWAT - FLAGS AND SEALS OF THE PEARL OF THE ORIENT SEAS

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THE WHA-CHI AND OTHER GUERRILLA GROUPS AND UNITS

FLAG OF THE WA - CHI MOVEMENT

The Wa -Chi Movement, also known as Wah - Chi or Hua Zhi, was a group of chinese-filipinos who fought against japanese in 1942 - 1945.
Its complete name was : Feilubin Huaqiao Kangri Zhidui (Philippine - Chinese anti-japanese Guerrilla Forces ).
This group was linked to the Kang Chu / PCAJVC and Kang Fan group - Feilubin Huaqiao Kangri Chujan Yiyongdui ( Philippine -Chinese Anti-japanese and anti-puppets League ).
These Groups were linked to the R.P.C. but the other part of the filipino -Chinese Community was linked to the Kuomintang and adopted its flag.
WHA-CHI FLAG

Description of the flag of Wha-Chi , a filipino-chinese anti japanese guerrilla movement who fought in the Archipelago during WWII :

The two chinese characters in the middle of the flag stand for Wha-Chi name in chinese stylized calligraphy.
The two english words below stand for Wha-Chi name in Fookien phonetic sound.
The three stars at upper left corner symbolize the Wha-Chi three main codes of conduct :

1 Fight the japanese
2 Protect the people
3 Obey to the Superior Command

The two horizontal lines at lower right corner symbolize Wha-Chi main tasks :

1 Fight japanese imperialism and oppose fascism
2 Defend freedom and democracy
FLAG OF KUOMINTANG
CHINESE-FILIPINO GUERRILLEROS WITH SOME CAPTURED JAPANESE SOLDIERS IN LUZON
MEMBERS OF THE CHINESE- FILIPINO  48TH GUERRILLA UNIT (WHA-CHI)
The COWHM, "The Chinese Overseas Wartime Hsuehkan Militia " was formed in 1938 by a group of young men who received training and support by the Guomindang who send them to Nanping , Fujian at the Reserve Officiers Training Camp No. 13 held by the war Department of the Chinese Nationalist government.
After the training, in march 14, 1942, some of those men come back to the Philippines and started a new group named : " Huaquiao Zhonghun She" (Loyal Soul Society) ", the new group was composed by 63 men.
On may 27, 1942 , by a meeting the group was renamed as : " Feilubin Minzhu Zhandi HuaqiaoXuegantuan " ( Philippine Democratic War Zone Chinese Overseas Hsuehkan Militia ).
The Militia was symbolized by a " B ", representing the military Academy no. 13, where the organizer members were trained and three streaks on both sides, representing Sun Yat-sen's Three People Principles. *


*
The three People's Principles, or collectively San-min Doctrine, is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. Its legacy of implementation is most apparent in the governmental organization of the Republic of China (ROC), which currently administers Taiwan, Penghu, Quemoy, and Matsu Islands. This philosophy has been claimed as the cornerstone of the Republic of China's policy as carried by the Kuomintang (KMT). The principles also appear in the first line of the National Anthem of the Republic of China. The three principles are often translated and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.

Tarlac guerrillas flag - "Luzon Guerrilla Armed Forces, U.S. Army Forces Far East." This flag is the unit colors of the Tarlac Guerrillas, a US & Filipino guerrilla unit behind Japanese lines in the Philippines during WWII, commanded by Capt Albert Hendrickson (whose widow donated flag to the museum). Flag was made in Catholic Church in Tarlac using material from a parachute from a Japanese aviator shot down by this unit and painted by noted Filipino artist Galo Ocampo. Unit was composed of American and Filipino troops who were not included in surrender of Philippines or otherwise avoided/escaped Japanese captivity. Their mission was to harass Japanese forces in the Philippines and later reconiassance for Allied units during Philippine campaign. This is believed to be one of the few flag of a guerrilla unit known to survive.
THE FLAG OF THE MARKING'S GUERRILLA GROUP.

The Marking's Guerilla was one of the most admired Guerilla group, since it was created by two of the most guerrilla leaders in World War II. They were, Marcos Villa Augustin (Marking), a former cab driver and boxer from Manila, and hismistress, biographer and wife: Yay Panlillio, an American mestiza and former newspaper reporter. Marking's guerrillas formed in the Sierra Madre mountains east of Manila under Col. Straughn's umbrella, and became an independent organization when Straughn was captured in August 1943. Marking's organization developed a reputation for ruthlessness, and was often in open conflict with the Hunters ROTC Guerrillas, nearby.
The flag had a black field with the word "Luzon"above an eagle and had a big letter V in white color ; inside the V there were two words :" Marking's " on the left side and " Guerrilla" on the right side.
A circular inscription with the words :"More victories ahead" was placed below the letter V .
The only sample known of that flag ( kept in Laguna ) was destroyed by human carelessness and by time.

( The drawing of the flag is based on oral accounts of some veterans and heirs of veterans of the Marking's guerrilla ).
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