Maniago Revolt (1660)
Maniago Revolt led by Don Francisco Maniago, initially caused by natives' protest against the polo and bandala ("polo" was forced labour and "bandala" was tribute in the form of food stuff. bandala was the Kapampangan word for food basket.) , later became a struggle to free the natives from Spanish rule. The rebels were weakened by Gov. de Lara's cooperation of Arayat chief Macapagal.
The Maniago Revolt was an uprising in Pampanga during the 1660s. It was a revolt against the Spanish during the colonial period and was named after its leader, Francisco Maniago. During that time, Pampanga drew most of the attention from the religious group because of its relative wealth. They also bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. They were made to work for eight months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them. Their patience was put to the limit and they signified their intention to revolt by setting their campsite on fire. The fight soon began and because the Spaniards were busy fighting against the Dutch, they were badly depleted by the Kapampangans. Maniago was very clever and was able to make his fellows believe in the idea of attaining freedom if they revolt. He succeeded not only in the attempt of having his natives believe in his propaganda but also the Pangasineses, Cagayanons and the Ilocanos. But sometimes, Maniago lied and exaggerated his claims. He once told his followers that a group of Pamapangos entered Manila and killed all the Spaniards there. However, he was very confident that he can actually persuade the chieftains of each town in Pampanga to kill the Spaniards and free the province from them. Although their motives were already executed, a Spanish governor named Manrique de Lara was able to neutralize the rebellion by using the "divide and rule" trick. He began with a "show of force" directed at Macabebe, one of the more affluent towns in the province at that time. The Macabebe was intimidated and became friendly towards the Spaniards, who responded in the same way. This strategy was also done to other towns in the province and in the end, Maniago and his followers did not have a choice but to agree in making peace with Governor de Lara. The Governor also tricked Maniago into leaving Manila with a bribe of being appointed as a master of camp in the Pampango regiment in the city. Maniago was never heard from again and according to one account, he was shot months later in Mexico, Pampanga. The Maniago revolt was the start of a much bigger and even bloodier revolt in Pangasinan. This battle was led by a man named Andres Malong who had heeded the call of Maniago to revolt against the Spaniards.
According to some accounts flags and banners adopted during the Maniago Revolt was red, yellow (gold ) and green probably displayed as three orizontal stripes.
salagintu (red, gold and green) named after the golden beetle (Charidotella sexpunctata)... said to be the colour used by the Kapampangan nobility, it was said to be used during he Kapampangan Revolt of Francisco Maniago in 1660 and later by the Kapampangan secular clergy. It is still the colour used during festivals where Catholicism remains strong.
since local historians could not find anything written by the spaniards, they speculate that the colours attributed to Maniago and his revolt were just the personal colour of the Pamintuan and Baluyut clans, families who were actively involved in the revolt. they weren't proscribed after the revolt, rather they continued to prosper after it.
The Baluyut became the first priestly clan (they were one of the first natives to become priests in the colonial church) in pampanga and included the red, gold and green colours in their priest's insignia. they draped the churches, streets and houses with this colour during catholic festivals.
the Pamintuan remained in active service in the colonial army after the revolt, and later in politics. the red, gold and geen colours became identified with their family. their capitans, like Don Florentino Pamintuan of Angeles, wore a sash of the same colour across their shoulders, drape their houses with it during festivals, and even during elections up to the present age. in angeles city for instance, mayor pamintuan has always used these colours in his election banners.
when the Archdiocese of Pampanga was created in the 1950s, they adopted the red, gold and green colours in the Archdiocese insignia. the catholic digest does not give an explanation why, except that red was the colour of upper pampanga and green that of lower pampanga and gold that of the king represented in christ. *
BUST OF FRANCISCO MANIAGO, 1660 CIRCA
VARIOUS TRICOLORS FLAGS AND BANNERS OF THE MANIAGO REVOLT SHOWN IN DIFFERENT SHAPES
THE TRICOLOR OF PAMPANGA WITH THE HISTORICAL COLORS
THE PRESENT SEAL OF PAMPANGA ADOPTED THE TRADITIONAL COLORS OF PAMPANGA AND MANIAGO REVOLT
* Thanks to Mike Pangilinan for infos and notes