FLAGS AND SYMBOLS FROM 1800 TO 1900 CENTURY > FROM THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION UNTIL PRESENT DAYS
The (second ) Republic of the Philippines ( Republika ng Pilipinas), was a state in the Philippines established in October 14, 1943 under Japanese occupation.
President Manuel L. Quezon declared Manila, the capital, an "open city" and left it under the rule of Jorge B. Vargas, as mayor. The Japanese entered the city on January 2, 1942 and established it as the capital. Japan fully captured the Philippines on May 6, 1942, after the Battle of Corregidor.
General Masaharu Homma dissolved the Commonwealth of the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission, a caretaker government, with Vargas as its first chairman. All political parties were banned and replaced by the non-partisan KALIBAPI – Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas ( "Organization in the Service of the New Philippines"). KALIBAPI's director-general was Benigno S. Aquino.
A constitution was formed by the Preparatory Commission for Independence, consisting of 20 members from the KALIBAPI. The Preparatory Commission, led by José P. Laurel, presented its draft Constitution on September 4, 1943 and three days later, the KALIBAPI general assembly ratified the draft Constitution.
By September 20, 1943, the KALIBAPI's representative groups in the country's provinces and cities elected from among themselves fifty-four members of the Philippine National Assembly, the legislature of the country, with fifty-four governors and city mayors as ex-officio members.
Three days after establishing the National Assembly, its inaugural session was held at the pre-war Legislative Building and it elected by majority Benigno S. Aquino as its first Speaker and José P. Laurel as President of the Republic of the Philippines, who was inaugurated on October 15, 1943 at the foundation of the Republic.
JOSE' LAUREL, THE PRESIDENT OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
THE FLAG OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
COAT OF ARMS OF THE REPUBLIC
GREAT SEAL OF THE REPUBLIC *
SEAL OF THE REPUBLIC *
CELEBRATIVE 2 PISO FILIPINO COIN MINTED IN 1992 , IT SHOWN THE COAT OF ARMS OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC
POST STAMP CELEBRATING THE SECOND REPUBLIC
Note the Coat of Arms of the Republic at the left side of the post stamp
* Images provided by Hubert de Vries ( http://www.hubert-herald.nl/INHOUD.htm )